What is the Cervix cancer?

It is the lower, narrow part of the uterus and a canal that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer is a disease where normal cells in the cervix starts to grow out of control, and forms a mass called tumor. Cervical cancers can be prevented by having regular Pap tests or by the process of vaccination.

What are the symptoms of Cervical Cancer?

Early-stage Cervical cancer patients are usually asymptomatic. Patients with advanced cervical cancer may present with:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods or after intercourse or pelvic examination Menstrual periods may last longer or be heavier than usual.
  • Postmenopausal bleeding.
  • Increase vaginal discharge.
  • Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse

Cervical Cancer Early detection and prevention

Cervical cancer can be detected early by doing regular annual PAP smear and pelvic examination. The risk of cervical cancer can be reduced by :

  • getting vaccinated against HPV
  • Having routine Pap tests
  • Practice safe sex
  • having fewer sexual partners
  • not smoking.

Cervical cancer risk factors

  • Infection with sexually transmitted viruses (Human papillomavirus (HPV), genital herpes virus).
  • Women whose immune system weakened. Or have Immune system deficiency.
  • Genital herpes
  • Smoking
  • Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • If the woman’s partner begins having sexual intercourse at an early age, had multiple partners, or previously married to a women with cancer cervix.
  • Smoking

What treatment is available?

The disease is highly curable if treated at an early stage. Depending on the
stage of the disease, one or more of these treatment modalities the doctor may recommend

  • Surgery: Early-stage cervical cancer usually treated with surgery to remove the uterus.
    • Simple hysterectomy, the cervix, and uterus removed along with cancer,
    • Radical hysterectomy, the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina and lymph nodes removed with cancer.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy which is a local treatment uses high-energy rays from a machine located outside the body to destroy and kills cancer cells, prevent the spread of a tumor from its original site or slow down cancer growth — radiotherapy in some patients used before surgery to shrink cancer (to make operation more feasible), and in some used after surgery to eliminate the cancer cells that may remain in the affected area.Radiation therapy can be given by giving external beam radiation therapy to the affected area) and brachytherapy which is giving radiotherapy Internally, by placing a device filled with radioactive material inside your vagina, usually for only a few minutes, Both externally and internally radiation may be given with or without chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy: It is the administration of a cytotoxic chemical drug to kill cancer cells which may be found in or outside the cervix. It also prevents cancer spread. Low doses of chemotherapy usually combined with radiation therapy, Higher doses of chemotherapy are used to control advanced cervical cancer that spread to other parts of the body.
  • Supportive (palliative) care